Commerce & Community

In Commerce & Community: Ecologies of Social Cooperation (Routledge 2014), Robert Garnett, Paul Lewis and I set out to encourage interaction and cross-fertilization among several contemporary lines of research that have begun to reject the division of economic life into separate spheres of commerce and community (impersonal, amoral Gesellschaft vs. face-to-face, ethically imbued Gemeinschaft) and to recast the economic domain as a heterogeneous provisioning space through which individuals secure, in Smithian terms, “the cooperation and assistance of great multitudes.” By rethinking basic categories such as rationality, identity, reciprocity, cooperation, beneficence, justice, commerce, community, and economy, a new generation of scholars are painting the ecology of voluntary cooperation in richer colors and subtler dimensions than would be possible based on Samuelsonian/Stiglerian (Max-U, markets-only) conceptions of economy or capitalism.  Unfortunately, the ecology of cooperation among these theorists themselves remains quite limited; their integrative approaches exist mostly as islands within segregated academic tribes.  One finds few venues in which, for example, feminist, Austrian, and evolutionary economists jointly interrogate the commercial/communal dualism (impersonal, amoral Gesellschaftvs. face-to-face, ethically imbued Gemeinschaft).

We were gratified to elicit contributions from two dozen contributors and grateful to Routledge for publishing the volume.


The Philanthropic Enterprise

In 2000, I had the opportunity to get acquainted with Richard Cornuelle, a leading figure in the early libertarian movement who became one of our country’s most insightful analysts of the philanthropic sector. Dick had long believed that the intellectual case for the free society was still most vulnerable where civil society intersected with the welfare state. Could America be both a free and humane society and resist the soft despotism of which Tocqueville had warned?

Dick invited me to help him develop a project that would engage scholars in rethinking the rationale for private philanthropy and in renewing “voluntary welfare,” represented in the American traditions of mutual aid, charity, and voluntary association and in the innovations of the emerging trend of social entrepreneurship. For over a decade, funded almost solely by the J.M. Kaplan Fund, the Project for New Philanthropy Studies @ DonorsTrust worked closely with Dick and a small circle of scholars and advisors to renew and deepen the classical liberal understanding of philanthropy as a counterweight to the dominant Progressive paradigm shaping today’s state-based welfare system.   Some of that work is represented in our journal, Conversations on Philanthropy, published annually since 2004 and available online at .

After Dick’s death in 2011, we formally launched The Philanthropic Enterprise to continue this important work. The mission of The Philanthropic Enterprise is to strengthen public understanding of the ways in which independent philanthropy and voluntary social cooperation contribute to human flourishing. Our programs (1) inspire conservatives, classical liberals, and libertarians to think more deeply about philanthropy and voluntary association, and (2) inspire philanthropy scholars and professionals to think more clearly about the principles of freedom and prosperity. No one else is doing this essential intellectual work.

Conversations on Philanthropy

Conversations on Philanthropy: Emerging Questions on Liberality and Social Thought is a journal in English, and publishes original articles, essays, and book reviews addressing considerations of the role of philanthropy in a free society. Our aim is to promote inquiry and reflection on the importance of liberality—both in the sense of generosity and of the character befitting free individuals—for the flourishing of local communities, political societies, and humanity in general. As such we seek to open new perspectives on the theory, roles, and practices of philanthropic activities ranging from charitable giving, the actions of eleemosynary organizations, trusts, foundations, voluntary associations, and fraternal societies to volunteerism, mutual aid, social entrepreneurship and other forms of social action with beneficent intention (whether or not also combined with commercial and/or political purposes).

To facilitate conversations among traditional academic disciplines, Conversations on Philanthropy may include papers from a number of fields, including history, political science, economics, sociology, anthropology, philosophy, philanthropic studies, religious studies, belles lettres, law, and the physical sciences, as well from philanthropic practitioners.

Editor:  Lenore T. Ealy